МАНИПУЛЯЦИИ МАССОВЫМ СОЗНАНИЕМ.

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Один из способов управления большим количеством людей (коллективами, сообществами).
Формы манипуляций:
Положительные формы: заступничество, успокаивание, комплимент, невербальные заигрывания (обнимание, подмигивание), сообщение хороших новостей, общие интересы…
Отрицательные формы: деструктивная критика (высмеивание, критика личности и поступков), деструктивная констатация (негативные факты биографии, намеки и упоминания о прошлых ошибках), деструктивные советы (рекомендации по изменению позиции, способа поведения, безапелляционные повеления и указания)…

Методы манипуляции:
Методов манипуляции сознанием, используемых в средствах массовой информации, довольно много, но чаще всего выделяются следующие:
1.Использование внушения.
2.Искусственное затемнение «картинки реальности» в СМИ, подача противоречивой, недостоверной и заведомо предвзятой информации.
3.Перенос частного факта в сферу общего, в систему.
4.Использование слухов, домыслов, толкований в неясной политической или социальной ситуации.
5.Метод под названием «нужны трупы».
6.Метод «страшилок».
7.Замалчивание одних фактов и выпячивание других.
8.Метод фрагментации.
9.Многократные повторы или «метод Геббельса».
10.Метод абсолютной лжи. Чем чудовищнее ложь, тем легче в неё верят (Геббельс).
11.Создание лжесобытий, мистификация.
12.Подмена фактов красивыми лозунгами. Например, «Свобода, Равенство, Братство».
13.Метод диссонанса: продвижение альтернативных фактов, ценностей и представлений, разрушающих механизмы трансляции исторической памяти, общие символы и ценности целевой группы (концепция молекулярной революции А. Грамши).

Способы противодействия прямым манипуляциям:
1) Внешнее согласие (начать с того, с чем согласен, можно даже привести аргумент в пользу слов оппонента). Состоит в том, что адресат выделяет из речи манипулятора те положения, с которыми может согласиться. Остальную информацию пропускает «мимо ушей», либо перефразирует её.
2) Перефразирование «-» в «+», констатация фактов. Как правило, применяется при манипуляциях отрицательной формы (вызывающих отрицательную эмоцию у объекта манипулирования).
3) Изменение темы разговора, оттягивание окончательного ответа (принять информацию к сведению и отложить решение на завтра, «утро вечера мудренее»).
4) Игнорирование отрицательной оценки или отказ от ответа (например: «не буду отвечать на эту реплику, ответить на неё — значит унизиться самому»; «этот вопрос я обойду молчанием…» и т. п.).
5) Повышение уровня компетентности, критичность восприятия, формирование научного образа мышления[13]. Критичность восприятия независимо от базового уровня знаний способна значительно ограничить глубину и продолжительность воздействия манипулятивных технологий на человека.

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