Распорядок дня


Одним из составляющих компонентов здорового образа жизни является распорядок дня. Вне зависимости от вида профессиональной или учебной деятельности, возраста, привычек, индивидуальных особенностей каждый человек испытывает нагрузку на свой организм. От того как организован день (длительности и тяжести трудового процесса, пауз и перерывов для отдыха и приема пищи) зависит самочувствие человека. При правильно организованном режиме создаются оптимальные условия для труда и отдыха, что способствует сохранению здоровья. Отсутствие рационального распорядка дня отрицательно влияет на организм. В основном устают не от большого объема работы, а от неправильности распределения времени. Человек живет в ритме с обществом: он должен в определенное время ложиться спать и вставать, выполнять свои обязанности, питаться, отдыхать.

Переутомление — состояние, возникающее вследствие долгого отсутствия отдыха организма человека. Утомление — это усталость, всеобщее истощение организма, а переутомление — это стадия длительного утомления. Переутомление опасно для здоровья человека. Особенно опасно переутомление для детского организма.

Основным принципом сохранения здоровья в трудовом процессе является чередование работы и отдыха. Отдых после работы не означает состояния полного покоя. Лишь при очень большом переутомлении может идти речь о пассивном отдыхе. Желательно, чтобы вид отдыха был противоположен характеру работы («контрастный» принцип). Людям физического труда необходима деятельность, не связанная с дополнительными нагрузками мышечной системы, а работникам умственного процесса, наоборот, в часы досуга нужно выбирать активность. Такое чередование физических и умственных нагрузок полезно для здоровья. Человек, работающий в помещении, должен хотя бы часть времени отдыха проводить на свежем воздухе. Городским жителям желательно отдыхать на прогулках в парках, на стадионах, за городом, экскурсиях, работой на садовых участках и т.п. К важнейшему виду ежедневного отдыха относится и полноценный сон. Потребность в нем у разных людей неодинакова и зависит от возраста, образа жизни, типа нервной системы человека. В среднем эта норма составляет около 8 часов.

Говоря, о режиме труда и отдыха не имеются в виду строгие поминутные графики. Однако сам распорядок является своеобразным стержнем, на котором должно базироваться проведение как будничных, так и выходных дней.

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